Introduction

Batteries are the most critical factor of today's society for a wide variety of uses, including vehicles, cell phones, computers, watches, remote controls, toys, medical equipment, and so on. The battery market is projected to grow to $90 billion by 2025, up from $60 billion in 2015. This is due to the growing presence of a range of electronic devices, electric cars, and stationary storage. 

As the demand for batteries rises in the coming days, the amount of waste produced from batteries is expected to rise as well. However, since the battery contains various types of chemicals, each of which has a different environmental effect, treating the waste is a difficult job.

Furthermore, batteries come in a variety of sizes and packaging materials, making sorting them a difficult task. Sorting dry-cell batteries, for example, is a costly and time-consuming process since these batteries come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and chemistries. Any of the chemicals used in dry cell batteries are highly harmful and can affect humans and the environment. Corrosion occurs in the metallic container of Ni-Cd batteries in landfills, resulting in cadmium dissolutions that enter the soil and water. This contaminates the whole environment even more.

Dead batteries pollute the atmosphere and have a loss of economic benefit if there is no adequate recycling or disposal process in place. Batteries come in a variety of metal compositions, rare elements, and alloys, all of which can be recycled and reused as a primary source for the same battery or for other applications after their life cycle is completed. Lithium-ion, Ni-Cd, and NiMH batteries contain key elements such as Li, Ni, Co, and Cu, and their supply in India is limited, so these elements have strategic value. With the the popularity of Li-ion batteries on the market, recovering primary elements from end-of-life batteries can become more cost-effective in the coming years.

To protect from negative environmental effect of battery production, a parallel system of disposal and recycling would be needed. All metal elements used in a Li-ion battery, such as Li, Co, Ni, Mn, Co, and Al, may potentially be recovered and re-used for battery or other applications. Owing to its high cost and questions about its supply, only Cobalt is currently partially recovered. To boost the Li-ion battery recycling industry, strict regulations on battery disposal must be implemented.

The lead-acid battery industry is very advanced in terms of recycling, with about 96 percent of batteries recycled globally. This is dependent on scalable and efficient recycling technology, stringent regulations preventing unsafe disposal, and a well-established supply chain for collecting used batteries from customers. The amount of resources that can be recovered from recycling, the idea of urban mining, and recent technical advancements in recycling.

Need of Battery Management

Since batteries have pervaded every aspect of modern life, they are difficult to replace. These batteries contain a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium, copper, arsenic, mercury, nickel, and zinc, all of which are harmful to human health and the environment. Heavy metals and other harmful contaminants percolate into the soil and water as a result of the careless disposal of spent batteries into landfills, contaminating food and water sources and rendering them unfit for human and wildlife use. When incineration is done incorrectly, some toxic metals are released into the air through stack gases or accumulate in the ash generated by the method of combustion.

Battery waste disposal is thus far more important than battery production; however, this is a problem that is frequently overlooked, especially in developing and poor countries. Three current techniques may be used to avoid and control the problems caused by improper disposal of spent batteries.

 The three

  • raising,
  • recharging, and
  • recycling.

The aim of this article is to look at the effects of battery waste on human health and the environment, as well as strategies for reducing it.

As a result, battery waste management is required to protect the environment from hazardous waste that will be emitted as a result of inappropriate battery disposal.

There are many advantages to battery recycling, including:

*Recovery of key materials: As India grows, demand for primary infrastructure materials such as iron, aluminium, copper, and zinc will rise in tandem with global demand. Due to their scarcity in India, other main elements used in batteries, such as Li, Ni, and various rare materials, have strategic importance.

As a result, it's important that we concentrate on resource recycling of these metals.

*Decreased waste generation and pollution: recycling batteries would minimise the amount of hazardous waste in landfills, as well as the need for mining.

*Reduced resource use in mining and extraction: the mineral beneficiation process for certain minerals consumes a lot of resources. Increased recycling of metals will help to minimise greenhouse gas emissions, which are a byproduct of the metal processing process.